There were numerous mounds constructed by the Fort Ancient culture (1000-1650 CE), in SW Ohio.
"In the late 1700s, settlers ventured farther and farther north of the Ohio River along the tributary valleys, building cabins, planting crops, grazing cattle, and creating fort-like settlements called “stations” – the most northerly along the Great Miami was Dunlap’s Station...” It was located next to an enormous 95-acre D-shaped Hopewell era enclosure, with walls nine feet high."
(Is this consistent with other maps? When did the riverbed change?)
Below is a watercolour showing an established trail just East of the Great Miami, forking NW from what later became the City of Hamilton. The latter was shown as the Wabash Trail. East of Little Miami along the Ohio River was a settlement known as Le Baril (now California). The bulk of the native settlements were North and East of the Scioto River which arises near a NS center line in the middle of what is now the state of Ohio.
In 1763 the Treaty of Paris defined the boundaries of the European Powers...
After the defeat of 6 Oct 1774 at Point Pleasant, West Virginia, the Shawnees agreed to give up more land. (pg 217).
1776 - Declaration of Independence.
1778 - Symmes request... Symmes Purchase in Ohio.
1783 - US victory led to Ohio land sales as income... "With the American victory in 1783, more and more settlers began arriving in the region and settling Indian lands. [The Miami's, or as they were sometimes called, the Twightwees, lived in what was to become Indiana and western Ohio.] The Indians responded with many raids. It is estimated that Little Turtle's War killed 1,500 settlers from 1783 to 1790.
The first settler in the tract now covered by Colerain township was undoubtedly John DUNLAP, an Irishman from Colerain, in the north of Ireland. In 1790 he made his way up the valley of the Great Miami to this notable bend, about seventeen miles from the Cincinnati of that day, where he determined to found a colony, and laid out a village, which be named from his native place in the old country, and which, though it presently became extinct, perpetuated its musical name in the designation of the township. A few settlers joined him here; and they promptly built a fort or station at the spot selected. It consisted simply of their little cabins clustered together upon a space of about an acre, built to face each other and, with a singular want of forethought, their roofs so placed as to slope outward, and the caves so low that it is said the dogs were accustomed to jump from the stumps without to the top of them, and so get into the enclosure.1
This was constructed of a stockade of rather weak pickets, made of small timber or logs split in half and thrust into the ground, above which they stood only about eight feet high. Small block-houses were built at the corners of the square formed by the stockade. Within this dwelt about thirty persons -- men, women, and children -- including only eight or ten capable of bearing arms.
Upon the erection of the station, however, and application duly made at Fort Washington for a garrison, Lieutenant KINGSBURY was sent with thirteen soldiers to strengthen the defenders. When the terrible occasion came, too, as we shall presently see, the heroic women of the little fort proved capable of rendering invaluable aid toward its salvation from capture by the merciless savage foe.
The settlers moved to what they thought was John Dunlap's land. It is unclear if they intended to expand American territories, or simply occupy the spoils of war. Typically settlers conceived of "good" and "bad" natives, unless they had suffered from previous encounters...
The Indians gave the settlers so much trouble that General HARRISON, at Fort Washington, now Cincinnati, sent for their protection a detachment of soldiers under Lieutenant KINGSBURY.
In April these Settlers (11 families), troops & Natives met:
BURKHARDT/BERGIT, Martin - my ancestor...
"BRADBURY CILLEY... purchased a section of land on the Big Miama, at what was then called DUNLAP'S Station, about sixteen miles from Cincinnati. This station... was the first settlement in the interior, back from the Ohio river.
CRUM, William, John and David. Roseanna /Whitinger/, Rozen /Whitinger/, Roseanna /Crum/, Roseanna /Wick/: After William "was killed by Indians in Ohio," Roseanne took her children to Henry Co., IN, where she was in demand for her medical expertise. "...She had considerable medical knowledge and ability as a nurse and was known for miles around for the success she had in alleviation of pain and in curing diseases by administering curative remidies." From Butte County History by George C. Mansfield. She moved between Jan. 1823 and March 1824, and it was there she remarried. Record of the Lane and Crum families to A.D. 1881.
DUNLAP, John - It now appears there were two John Dunlap's who were Ohio surveyors...
FELTON, Henry & Jacob
KINGSBURY,, Lt Jacob
SYMMES - did not move here and went on to a disgraced career...
WHITINGER, Henry - "Listed in Nelson's History of Hamilton County (1894) as one of the original inhabitants of Dunlap's Station along with his brothers-in-law John, William and David Crum Also a signer of document sent from Fort Coleraine asking for orders on January 17, 1791. Whitinger genealogy says born Butler Co., Ohio, but very unlikely at this early date. Was at Dunlap's Station during Indian attack. Daraugh's Station, Hamilton Co., Ohio Henry left Dunlap's Station in the spring of 1792, going to the settlement of North Bend. Shortly thereafter he moved to Daraugh's Station with others of the original Dunlap's Station settlers. Jacob Felton's memoirs gives an interesting story of "Uncle Henry." He was out with some men at the corn fields when a party of Indians were spotted. Henry was slower than the rest in running back to the fort and he tripped, so he crawled into a bunch of grapevine to hide. He hid until he thought the Indians had gone, but on his way back to the fort he spied an Indian, who turned to run until he saw that Henry was alone, at which time he fired a shot at Henry, but missed. Signatures from document sent from Fort Coleraine asking for orders on January 17, 1791. Includes William Crum and Henry Whitinger."
Wycoff, Rebecca - "If she was at Dunlap's Station in January 1791, then at least somewhat doubtful she married in Pennsylvania."
Mary /Cronis/ Fort Coleraine (Dunlap's Station), Hamilton Co., Ohio Her son's William, John and David are listed as being among the early settlers at Fort Coleraine, and Mary is listed as being later at Daraugh's Station, so it is likely she moved with her children (including Rebecca) first to Fort Coleraine and then on to Daraugh's Station.
David /Crum/ Listed in Nelson's History of Hamilton County (1894) as one of the inhabitants of Dunlap's Station along with his brother William. Fort Coleraine (Dunlap's Station), Hamilton Co., Ohio Listed as being one of early settlers at Fort Coleraine in Nelson's History of Hamilton Co. (1894), along with brothers William and John, and brother-in-law Henry Whitinger.
Jacob W. /Crum/ Fort Coleraine (Dunlap's Station), Hamilton Co., Ohio John moved with his family from Pennsylvania to Dunlap's Station, Hamilton Co., Ohio, in 1790. This was located in present-day Coleraine Twsp, just north of Cincinnati on the Great Miami River. Listed as being one of early settlers at Fort Coleraine in Nelson's History of Hamilton Co. (1894), along with brothers David and William, and brother-in-law Henry Whitinger. John probably was captured and adopted by Indians. The story, however, has inconsistencies. There are two main sources: Samuel Hahn's account, recorded in Cist and John Felton's account. The accounts, based on memory, seem to have confused or impossible details. It is even possible it was another John Crum, perhaps a nephew? Samuel Hahn's account and the History of Hamilton County say the capture of John Crum took place at Dunlap's Station (which would make it ca. 1790-91). On the other hand, Wiseman's account of the attack on Dunlap's Station says only that David Gibson was captured, and the Felton account says the John Crum capture took place at Daraugh's Station (making it about 1792), so it is uncertain where this took place. Jacob Felton was a settler at Daraugh's Station. His memoir gives this account: John Crum and his "little" sister went out to play and pick grapes, about 1/4 mile from the Daraugh's Station fort. When his sister grew tired and went back to the fort without John, the settlers went out to find him, but all they found was his hat and moccasin tracks. (This has the problem that Rebecca in 1792 was married, so was not "little" and likely would not have gone out with John to play. This may indicate the event took place earlier, or that there was another unnamed sister, or that Rebecca may have just gone out with John to get grapes). Jacob Felton continues, saying that John was adopted by the Indians. When he was about 12 he was brought back to his natural parents, but he refused to stay. A year later he was brought back again and finally did stay with his natural parents. [This is another problem with the Felton account, for the ages here don't work with our John and John's father was dead by this time.] Samuel Hahn was one of the early settlers of Dunlap's Station, and he gave Cist his account in 1859, for Cist's Sketches and Statistics of Cincinnati. Hahn says the event occurred at Dunlap's Station when John was about 13 . He gives a similar story, saying that John went out to gather grapes with his sisters (multiple?), and he was up a tree after they left, but left his hat at the bottom, which was spotted by a group of five Indians, who took him captive.
The following account was posted on the Eastern IN Crum Family web site. It appears to be based on a combination of Felton and Hahn.:
"It seems, one day, John and his sister (or sisters according to one source) Rebecca were out in the woods of the Southwestern Ohio region, gathering grapes to eat. John was a lad of 13 at the time. After gathering a certain quantity of grapes, John handed some to his sister Rebecca who then headed towards home. John stayed behind gathering more grapes from a vine in a tree. While in the tree, his hat from the tree to the ground and 5 Miami Indians happened by and saw the hat. Looking up the tree, they instructed him to come down. They captured him and brought him back to their camp where an indian couple adopted him. John was in captivity for 5 years, until, at the age of 18, as a condition of the treaty of Greenville he along with several other captives was released. John was reluctant to go home because he had grown very close to his indian parents; but, the tribe told him where to find his family and he soon joined them. So close was his relationship to his adopted tribe that every year thereafter an Indian chief used to visit John. The next place we see John is when he married Mary Lee, April 10, 1806, in Greene Co., Ohio
Rebecca /Goble/ Fort Coleraine (Dunlap's Station), Hamilton Co., Ohio Rebecca was in the fort during the Indian attack and helped with the tasks, such as taking refreshment to the men and perhaps making bullets by melting down spoons and plates.
William Cronis /Crumm/ William was said to be killed by Indians in Ohio (cf. George C. Mansfield Butler Co. History), but he did write a will and died but two months later, and there doesn't seem to be any Indian activities that might have caused this in 1822, so this seems like it might be more a nice story than Fort Coleraine (Dunlap's Station), Hamilton Co., Ohio. Listed as being one of early settlers at Fort Coleraine in Nelson's History of Hamilton Co. (1894), along with brothers David and John, and brother-in-law Henry Whitinger. He was there by April 1790. Also, said to be among the 11 families that first settled Fort Dunlap was his widowed mother Mary and his sister Rebecca. According to Wiseman's account, William was attacked by Indians along with David Gibson, who was captured, and Thomas Larrison, who with William escaped back to the fort. Samuel Hahn indicates Gibson was captured when out on his own, so Wiseman may have confused two separate events.
After the Indian attack in Jan. 1791, all the inhabitant of Dunlap's Station abandoned it to move to North Bend. William was one of the signers of a document sent from Fort Coleraine on January 17, 1791 saying that they were going to leave Fort Coleraine because of the disadvantages cause by the attack of the "Savages." The fort was reestablished the next year, but William seems to have moved on to Daraugh's Station. William was at fort during the Indian attack. About 500 Indians attacked the station, which was defended by Lieutenant Kingsbury, thirteen regulars and about eight to ten armed residents. The Indians attacked on the 10th, tortured a prisoner within sight of the fort that night, then attacked the next day until they heard that reinforcements were coming, when they gave up the attack. The account by Wiseman says the attack was led by Blue Jacket and Simon Girty.
William was a scout for General St. Clair during the battle with the Indians on the Wabash in Nov. 1791 and elsewhere. Known as "a red-headed Indian Scout" in Mary Coates Martin's "Colonial Pioneers, Martin and Bell Families and their Kin." Tradition that he was of Scots-Irish descent. Also tradition that the character of Nathaniel Bumppo in "Leather Stocking Tales" was based on William. William was at Dunlap's Station from about 1790 to 1792, at which time he moved, along with the other settlers, to North Bend and then on to Daraugh's Station He later moved to a property where he set up a farm that he eventually passed on to Abraham. It appears that William Crum, and the other settlers at Dunlap's Station, found that John Dunlap did not have clear title to the land he had sold them. These settlers, however, applied for forfeiture land where the original owner had not made improvements. On 19 April 1798 William received forfeit of the NE corner of Section 4 in Coleraine township, located at what is now the intersection of Springdale and Pippin Roads. He lived there until 1812, when he sold the tract to his older brother Abraham. William built a cabin and married Rosanah Whitinger. He worked for the army located at Fort William as a scout, etc. William was one of the first settlers at Daraugh's Station, which he moved to after leaving Dunlap's Station in the spring of 1792. He was out on a hunting trip with three other men when they heard a group of Indians coming. One of the men, falling behind, was wounded by an Indian, but William stopped and shot the Indian so the man could be got back to the fort. All the settlers survived the fight at the fort that followed. Note that this might have occurred at Dunlap's Station a year or...
In 1790, President George Washington ordered an army into the field...""The army organized at Fort Washington (present-day Cincinnati, Ohio... "Little Turtle launched two big attacks and routed Harmer's army, inflicting more than 200 casualties."
▼Siege of Dunlap's Station (first attack)
On January 8, 1791 four men from the station were inspecting a clearing on the opposite side of the river when they were surprised and assaulted by Indians. One man was killed, and one, Abner Hunt, was captured and the remaining two made their way back to the station where they immediately gave the alarm of an impending attack. The settlers and soldiers under the command of Lieutenant Jacob Kingsbury, gathered in the blockhouse to prepare for the assault. On January 10 the Indians approached the station, supposedly led by Simon Girty, and demanded surrender using their captive as an interpreter. Gunfire broke out while the demands were being made and continued for several hours. The Indians renewed there demands of surrender upon pain of torture and death of their hostage. When the demands were ignored Mr. Hunt was tortured and killed that night. Fighting resumed at the break of dawn the next day, January 11 until a relief force from Fort Washington arrived at about 10:00 AM. The Indians ended the siege and fled into the forest.
1791, Jan 10 Dunlaps Stn. attack... by Simon Girty & Blue Coat w ....
Jan 17 Petition re: "savages..."
Next it was General Arthur St. Clair's turn. In the fall of 1791... he built new bases for added security - Fort Hamilton and Fort Jefferson. But in the end he fared no better... 900 casualties... "Washington ordered a third army out, this one 3,000 strong under General `Mad' Anthony Wayne... [who] took two years to organize..." (ppg 132-3).
1791, Jan 2 Hahn-Burget-Lutz (2nd attack)...
1792 (Spring) Moved to North Bend... and Dannaughs Stn.
1794 - Symmes aka Miami Purchase between Great & Small Rivers...?
1795 - After WAYNE'S treaty the garrison was dismissed...
1798? - Treaty of Greenville...
1798, Apr 19 - Coleraine land purchases were nullified?+ Money returned?
Much later many tribes were pushed into Oklahoma. (ppg.216-219).
The History of Hamilton County Ohio said that "THE PIONEER ROADS...(were) laid out from Cincinnati, northwest along Ludlow's trace to Mill creek, two miles above its mouth, thence towards the Ohio and on to the city of Miami...? Surveyor, Darius Orcutt.... [This track has been marched over by parts of four armies - dark's in 1780; HARMAR' left wing, 1790; ST. CLAIR' main body in 1791, and WAYNE' center and left wing in 1793.]
Later Historical Sources:
1850 - Cist interviewed Wm Wiseman & Samuel Hahn...
1859 Felton Interviews...
Uriah J. Jones started his writing career as a writer of fiction. The book, Simon Girty was his single famous foray into the realm of historical fiction.
According to William H. Egle, who edited, added an appendix and republished the History Of ... Juniata Valley, in 1889, Mr. Jones "could tell a local happening in a way that made you read it despite yourself."
....... Mr. Jones quoted the early pioneers despite the fact that his sources for quotations were five or so elderly individuals, none of whom would have been more than eight or nine years of age when they supposedly heard the remarks they were quoting.
Too many of Jones' fanciful quotes and anecdotes were accepted as pure fact without any checking to verify their validity. Practically each and every history book published after the History Of ... Juniata Valley quoted that book's information as if it embodied first-hand accounts.
This was surely a 'forward' 'defence.' It was a siege of a military wall around a farming settlement.
The rabid descriptions were surely reflective of the settler's views, after the fact. If they had been immune to endemic racism and fear/hatred. If it had been otherwise, it would have been noteworthy to the chroniclers.