Sunday, December 21, 2014

Fritz Zimmerman on Google Plus...

Zimmerman stuff on Cincy

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Adena sites

List of Adena culture sites

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Main article: Adena culture
This is a list of Adena culture sites. The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BCE, in a time known as the early Woodland Period. The Adena culture refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. The Adena lived in a variety of locations, including: OhioIndianaWest VirginiaKentucky, and parts of Pennsylvania and New York.
Adena Mound (Ross County, Ohio)Adena MoundAdena Mound, the type site for the culture, a registered historic structure near Chillicothe, Ohio.

"Hopewell" sites

Main article: Hopewell tradition
This is a list of Hopewell sites. The Hopewell tradition (also incorrectly called the "Hopewell culture") was the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 200 BCE to 500 CE. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations that were connected by a common network of trade routes,[1] known as the Hopewell Exchange System.
Bynum Mound and Village SiteBynum Mound and Village SiteLocated near Houston, Mississippi, the site is a complex of six conical shaped mounds which were in use during the Miller 1 and Miller 2 phases of the Miller culture(100 BCE to 100 CE).[2][3] and was built between 100 BCE and 100 CE. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989 as part of the Natchez Trace Parkway at milepost 232.4.

National Register of Historic Places on the Great Miami

Colerain and Dunlap...

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

The Ohio Valley Mound-Builders were Algonquian

The Ohio Valley Mound-Builders Were Algonquian
Modern realization that the principal mound-builders of the Ohio Valley (those usually referred to as “Adena” and “Hopewell”) were of the Algonquian ethnolinguistic group began early and has only grown stronger with time. The polyglot genius Constantine Rafinesque – the first systematic cataloguer of the mounds – was first to make the association in the 1830s, though his scientific arguments were masked by his chosen form of presentation: a fake “sacred text” of the Lenape called the Walam Olam. In parody of the Book of Mormon, the Walam Olam portrayed the works of the Ohio Valley as the ruins of epic battles between the Algonquian Lenape and the Cherokee, with the Lenape playing the role of the more “advanced” civilization building precision works – the role later attributed to the newly named “Hopewell.”
Despite the dramatic ruse, real science and ethnology underlay Rafinesque’s identification, which included a complete early theory of how the Algonquians had crossed North America after fording the Bering Strait, correct in all of its essentials. Rafinesque took much of his ethnology from the Moravian missionaries John Heckwelder and David Zeisberger, who had written of the genuine Lenape oral tradition that their ancestors had defeated a people called “the Snake People.” Rafinesque connected this legend to the many snake effigies, large and small, found among the works of the mound-builders, and obligingly filled his invented Lenape sacred script with serpent shapes borrowed from Algonquian iconography, reinforced by the real tendency of historic Central Algonquians to name their tribal divisions after snakes. Thus, though we must recognize the Walam Olum as fakery, it did intuit the genuine science yet to come.
There are eight categories of argument that demonstrate that the Mound-builders of the early and middle Woodland Period were indeed Algonquian. And by this I mean full-fledged Algonquians who spoke an Algonquian language (not Proto-Algonquian) and who descended from an Algic stock that probably constituted a separate migration into North America from Beringea. By saying that they were Algonquian, of course I do not exclude that there was influence or incorporation of other ethnolinguistic elements, but the general Algonquian identification is strong and clear. 
Here I will briefly summarize each of the eight arguments, some of which I will expand upon separately. It should be born in mind that the overall identification depends not on any one or two arguments but on all eight. Potential objections to individual points should not obscure the strength of the multiple types of evidence and the fact that no rival theory can come close to displacing the Algonquian ID.

Monday, December 15, 2014

Adena v. Hopewell - Geoffrey Sea

One and the Same: Adena v. Hopewell

(long but necessarily long)

EarthWorks - University of Cincinnati

The Octagon Earthworks: A Neolithic Lunar Observatory
Aerial photo by Richard Pirko, 1994 (Youngstown State University)

Mounds stuff to digest...

153 Years and the Debate Still Rages: Newark Mounds and Decalogue Stone

Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone
Newark Decalogue Stone, photo by J. Huston McCulloch
By B.L. Freeborn © 2013
If the Newark Indian Mounds of Newark, Ohio were not large enough to contain a golf course (which they do) they would have been declared a fraud and a hoax. The Decalogue Stone and Keystone, two stones with Hebrew inscriptions found at and near the site have been declared both a fake and real. The debate over the stones has raged 153 years.
Today’s greatest anti-stone debaters are: Kenneth L. Feder, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology at Central Connecticut State University and Bradley T. Lepper, Ph.D., Affiliated Scholar at Denison University in Granville, Ohio and Archeology Education Coordinator at the Ohio Historical Society.  They are joined by others who parrot their words such as Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews, Archaeology Officer at North Hertfordshire District Council, England, educated at University of Lancaster and Letchworth Grammar School and is a former nightclub DJ who writes “Badarcheaology.”

Mound Academic development +

Ancient Civilizations of 
the Americas - Webring 
This site is owned by: 
Joe Knapp 
Random Site List Sites

On the Great Hopewell Road
by Joseph M.  Knapp August 21, 1998

    "These walls proceed south a short distance, thence making one or two slight turns, finally settle to S. 27ยบ W., in which direction we have traced them some six miles over fertile fields, through tangled swamps and across streams, still keeping their undeviating course. The extent of this great fortified high way, and what other ancient stronghold or place of importance it connects with, is as yet unknown..."
    James and Charles Salisbury, 1862
    "In the southwestern United States the Anasazi built their own system of sacred pathways replicating a spiritual landscape described in their origin myths. Until recently, such roads were unknown in eastern North America, though nineteenth-century observers had recorded short stretches of parallel earthen walls leading to and from the large geometric enclosures of the Hopewell, a people who thrived in the valleys of what is now southern Ohio from ca. 100 B.C. to ca. A.D. 400. "
    Dr. Bradley T. Lepper, Curator of Archaeology, Ohio Historical Society, 1998

Sunday, November 23, 2014

American War...

weigley american way of war pdf

Frontier Terrorism
"Frontier Terrorism
Terrorism is nothing new to America.  From the first days of the Jamestown and Plymouth settlements the country has been rocked by repeated acts of terrorism.  This was usually on the frontier and was a part of the scene of westward expansion.  While Europeans fought endless bloody wars, the new world saw a different type of war, which is now called asymmetric or “guerilla” war.  This was characterized by ambush, surprise attacks, and the killing of not only the combatants, but women and children as well.  Outnumbered and outgunned the Native Americans fought back with small attacks and terror.  The timeless methods of Native-American warfare were adopted by the colonists and carried to great extremes.  Colonists had seen the futility of European style warfare early on.  All along the frontier the farm families feared the war whoop and near certain death.  The Native-Americans, pushed further west had not only to fear attack by the onrushing colonists, but also the brutal tribal warfare which the constant constriction of their territories exacerbated.  
   In May 26, 1637 the Pequot war was ended when colonists surrounded the Indian village of Misistuck at night.  Setting their homes afire, they slaughtered 600 – 700 men women and children as they fled the flames.  The Narragansett and Mohegan allies of the English colonists went home in disgust, saying that the “manner of the Englishmen's fight . . is too furious, and slays too many men.”  In 1689 the Mohawk attacked the small town of LaChine (375 inhabitants) on Montreal island.  They broke down doors and drug settlers outside to their deaths; they set fire to the buildings in which settlers barricaded themselves; they killed 24 initially and took 70 hostage.  Of those taken hostage nearly 50 were tortured and killed (burned to death and cannibalized).  

    In February of 1690, Finding the town gate unattended, Canadians and their Mohawk allies attacked Schenectady New York in the night, killing most of the inhabitants.  Of the 60 dead, 10 were women and 12 children.    During the French and Indian war, George Washington’s reputation was tarnished when his Iroquois allies massacred 20 French prisoners, tomahawking and scalping them before the colonial militia’s eyes.  This sort of brutality occurred in greater or lesser degree for over 200 years of our history.  The result is known to us all – the near extinction of the Native-American.  

Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (territory) -- Hamilton (county)

Saturday, November 22, 2014

Ancient Ohio Earthworks timeline

     The Geological Formation of the Ohio Valley (2 million to 9000 BC): Enormous glaciers helped reshape the Ohio Valley many thousands of years ago. The edge of the flat, glaciated region is prominent along a line just west of Serpent Mound, Chillicothe, and Newark. After the last glacier retreated northward, the new tributaries of the Ohio River, such as the Scioto or the Great Miami, often followed wide valleys created by the earlier, larger rivers. These valleys have rich soil, laid over the sand and gravel till left behind by the glaciers, and wide terraces at different levels that later became prime locations for earthworks.

Friday, November 21, 2014

Ohio Mounds...

The Untold History – Lincoln’s Mystery Mound Tour – By Geoffrey Sea

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Picture of Ohio Mounds
Adena Mound in Chillicothe, Ohio, in process of destruction, 1902
Giants are buried in the Ohio mounds. Seven or eight-foot skeletons poke from ancient log-lined graves like Abe Lincoln in a short Victorian bed. That is how the nineteenth-century scuttlebutt had it, the result of Buckeye hucksterism, misidentified mastodon bones, secret-society mysticism, and amateur inability to infer height from spread skeletal remains. “Throw a couple’a horse femurs in with a worn Indian cranium,” says one of my farmer-neighbors, “and you’d have yourself a boney-fide money-making giant!”  It’s an old game in these swing-state hills, like extracting ludicrous promises from presidential candidates.

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Scalping... Grenier...

Great Miami...

[emphasis added]


Neither Fort, nor Ancient, nor culture...

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

McBride - Vol II [merge all posts]

Potawatomi History - PDF

Thos Jefferson to Geo Washington... Notes

Centennial Anniversary... Hamilton city...

The Centennial Anniversary of the City of Hamilton, Ohio, ...
David Waddle McClung - 1892 - Hamilton (Ohio)
In 1791 a band of about three hundred Indians under the lead of Simon Girty ... Poor Abner Hunt, the captured man, was tied to a sapling about which the ...


The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During the American-Indian War from ...
William M. Osborn - 2009 - History
1790 1790 1790 1790 1791 1791 8 3 1 1 24 2 Johnston was captured, and ... at the stake and eaten by Miamis Abner Hunt was tied to a log, stretched out, a fire ...

Re-evaluating the Ft. Wayne Manuscripts...

Re-evaluating "The Fort-Wayne Manuscript": William Wells and the ...
by W Heath - 2010
Crawford, his superior, was captured and then tortured to death on March 11, 1782. ... On January 8, 1791, the Indians captured Abner Hunt, but failed to set the ...

Magazine of...

The Magazine of American History with Notes and Queries
In February, 1791, at the head of a large force of savages, he attacked and ... place that Abner Hunt met his death, but exactly how will probably never be known. ... in his Captivity, that Hunt was burned and tortured to death by Girty's Indians.

More maps...

See iPad for others clipped in Nov 2014...


The Victory with No Name: The Native American Defeat of the First ...
In January 1791 a raiding party of Wyandot and Delaware struck a new ... They captured a surveyor named Abner Hunt and tortured him to death in sight ofthe ...

History of Dearborn...

History of Dearborn and Ohio Counties, Indiana: From Their ...
1885 - Dearborn County (Ind.)
In January, 1791, a large band of Indians led, it was afterward reported, by the ... Abner Huntwas cruelly tortured, and put to death in sight of the garrison.

FindAGrave - Hedges - Hunt...

Abner "NJ surveyor" Hunt
Learn about removing the ads from this memorial...
Birth: unknown
New Jersey, USA
Death: Jan. 11, 1791
Hamilton County
Ohio, USA

Historian, Albert J Mestemaker delivered an address on 19 May 1996 at Dunlap Station, which was published in the newsletter, Coleraine Pageant, June 1996, p2. Albert details the Dec 1790-Jan 1791 "war party" led by renegade Simon Girty and "the white captive turned Shawnee Chief, Blue Jacket". Earlier, Abner Hunt had been captured as the prisoner, then later tortured, striped naked, and staked "on the open ground within 100 yards of the stockade" at Fort Dunlap, Colerain Twp. A fire was kindled on his stomach, and he burned to death, dying the morning after.

Abner Hunt is referred to as a young surveyor, working for Judge John Cleves Symmes. He was from New Jersey. Why is there no grave or memorial to Abner Hunt, who paid the ultimate sacrifice, after first being used to "demand surrender of the entire garrison"? Further details are available in many books.