Sunday, December 21, 2014

Fritz Zimmerman on Google Plus...

Zimmerman stuff on Cincy

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Adena sites

List of Adena culture sites

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Main article: Adena culture
This is a list of Adena culture sites. The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BCE, in a time known as the early Woodland Period. The Adena culture refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. The Adena lived in a variety of locations, including: OhioIndianaWest VirginiaKentucky, and parts of Pennsylvania and New York.
Adena Mound (Ross County, Ohio)Adena MoundAdena Mound, the type site for the culture, a registered historic structure near Chillicothe, Ohio.

"Hopewell" sites

Main article: Hopewell tradition
This is a list of Hopewell sites. The Hopewell tradition (also incorrectly called the "Hopewell culture") was the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 200 BCE to 500 CE. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations that were connected by a common network of trade routes,[1] known as the Hopewell Exchange System.
Bynum Mound and Village SiteBynum Mound and Village SiteLocated near Houston, Mississippi, the site is a complex of six conical shaped mounds which were in use during the Miller 1 and Miller 2 phases of the Miller culture(100 BCE to 100 CE).[2][3] and was built between 100 BCE and 100 CE. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989 as part of the Natchez Trace Parkway at milepost 232.4.

National Register of Historic Places on the Great Miami

Colerain and Dunlap...

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

The Ohio Valley Mound-Builders were Algonquian

The Ohio Valley Mound-Builders Were Algonquian
Modern realization that the principal mound-builders of the Ohio Valley (those usually referred to as “Adena” and “Hopewell”) were of the Algonquian ethnolinguistic group began early and has only grown stronger with time. The polyglot genius Constantine Rafinesque – the first systematic cataloguer of the mounds – was first to make the association in the 1830s, though his scientific arguments were masked by his chosen form of presentation: a fake “sacred text” of the Lenape called the Walam Olam. In parody of the Book of Mormon, the Walam Olam portrayed the works of the Ohio Valley as the ruins of epic battles between the Algonquian Lenape and the Cherokee, with the Lenape playing the role of the more “advanced” civilization building precision works – the role later attributed to the newly named “Hopewell.”
Despite the dramatic ruse, real science and ethnology underlay Rafinesque’s identification, which included a complete early theory of how the Algonquians had crossed North America after fording the Bering Strait, correct in all of its essentials. Rafinesque took much of his ethnology from the Moravian missionaries John Heckwelder and David Zeisberger, who had written of the genuine Lenape oral tradition that their ancestors had defeated a people called “the Snake People.” Rafinesque connected this legend to the many snake effigies, large and small, found among the works of the mound-builders, and obligingly filled his invented Lenape sacred script with serpent shapes borrowed from Algonquian iconography, reinforced by the real tendency of historic Central Algonquians to name their tribal divisions after snakes. Thus, though we must recognize the Walam Olum as fakery, it did intuit the genuine science yet to come.
There are eight categories of argument that demonstrate that the Mound-builders of the early and middle Woodland Period were indeed Algonquian. And by this I mean full-fledged Algonquians who spoke an Algonquian language (not Proto-Algonquian) and who descended from an Algic stock that probably constituted a separate migration into North America from Beringea. By saying that they were Algonquian, of course I do not exclude that there was influence or incorporation of other ethnolinguistic elements, but the general Algonquian identification is strong and clear. 
Here I will briefly summarize each of the eight arguments, some of which I will expand upon separately. It should be born in mind that the overall identification depends not on any one or two arguments but on all eight. Potential objections to individual points should not obscure the strength of the multiple types of evidence and the fact that no rival theory can come close to displacing the Algonquian ID.

Monday, December 15, 2014

Adena v. Hopewell - Geoffrey Sea

One and the Same: Adena v. Hopewell

(long but necessarily long)

EarthWorks - University of Cincinnati

The Octagon Earthworks: A Neolithic Lunar Observatory
Aerial photo by Richard Pirko, 1994 (Youngstown State University)

Mounds stuff to digest...

153 Years and the Debate Still Rages: Newark Mounds and Decalogue Stone

Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone
Newark Decalogue Stone, photo by J. Huston McCulloch
By B.L. Freeborn © 2013
If the Newark Indian Mounds of Newark, Ohio were not large enough to contain a golf course (which they do) they would have been declared a fraud and a hoax. The Decalogue Stone and Keystone, two stones with Hebrew inscriptions found at and near the site have been declared both a fake and real. The debate over the stones has raged 153 years.
Today’s greatest anti-stone debaters are: Kenneth L. Feder, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology at Central Connecticut State University and Bradley T. Lepper, Ph.D., Affiliated Scholar at Denison University in Granville, Ohio and Archeology Education Coordinator at the Ohio Historical Society.  They are joined by others who parrot their words such as Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews, Archaeology Officer at North Hertfordshire District Council, England, educated at University of Lancaster and Letchworth Grammar School and is a former nightclub DJ who writes “Badarcheaology.”

Mound Academic development +

Ancient Civilizations of 
the Americas - Webring 
This site is owned by: 
Joe Knapp 
Random Site List Sites

On the Great Hopewell Road
by Joseph M.  Knapp August 21, 1998

    "These walls proceed south a short distance, thence making one or two slight turns, finally settle to S. 27ยบ W., in which direction we have traced them some six miles over fertile fields, through tangled swamps and across streams, still keeping their undeviating course. The extent of this great fortified high way, and what other ancient stronghold or place of importance it connects with, is as yet unknown..."
    James and Charles Salisbury, 1862
    "In the southwestern United States the Anasazi built their own system of sacred pathways replicating a spiritual landscape described in their origin myths. Until recently, such roads were unknown in eastern North America, though nineteenth-century observers had recorded short stretches of parallel earthen walls leading to and from the large geometric enclosures of the Hopewell, a people who thrived in the valleys of what is now southern Ohio from ca. 100 B.C. to ca. A.D. 400. "
    Dr. Bradley T. Lepper, Curator of Archaeology, Ohio Historical Society, 1998